The basic aim of this protocol is to detect changes in species richness in terms of cover and frequency. The study focuses on native forests (mainly Holm oak woodlands and pyrenean oak forests) and shrublands of the medium and high-mountain of Sierra Nevada massif.

Method and effort

Sampling points were chosen in the different ecosystems studied using the available mapping of the vegetation. The monitoring effort for each community selected is directly proportional to its presence in the natural space and to its singularity. In this way, the selection made of a number of localities was intended to be sufficient to encompass the maximum diversity that Sierra Nevada offers, seeking to maintain a balanced geographical distribution. At each location, 3 replicates were established in an effort to maintain, as far as possible, the same conditions of orientation, elevation, and slope. Each of the replicates consists of a plot 20 m x 20 m which is subdivided into 16 quadrats of 5 m x 5 m each. In each quadrat, a complete inventory of taxa present is prepared and the relative coverage of each taxon is determined in the plot. The ecosystem studied are: acidophilous holm oak woodland, pyrenean oak forest, native pine forest, juniper thicket, spanish juniper stands, dolomitic thyme thickets and semiarid shrublands.


Monitoring is undertaken every three years.


Felicísimo, Á.M. (coord.) 2011. Impactos, vulnerabilidad y adaptación al cambio climático de la biodiversidad española. Oficina española de Cambio Climático. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. Madrid, 552 pp.
Benito de Pando, B. 2008. El Calentamiento Global en Sierra Nevada. Modelos de distribución potencial de formaciones vegetales sobre distintos escenarios de Cambio Global. Proyecto DEA. Departamento de Botánica. Universidad de Granada. Granada.
Martínez Parras, J.M. y Molero Mesa, J.1982. Ecología y fitosociología de Quercus pyrenaica Willd. en la provincia bética. Los melojares béticos y sus etapas de sustitución. Lazaroa, 4: 91-104.